By I.M. Kolthoff
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49 coefficient'' of solutions also confirmed When electrolyte solutions are involved, however, the osmotic effects such as freezing point lowering, osmotic pressure increase, rise in boiling point are much greater than corresponds to the total electrolyte concentration. Accordingly, VAN'T HOFF introduced the irrationality factor i (VAN'T HOFF factor) by which and the particular osmotic effect could be divided to yield a number which satisfied the equation of state (i is always greater than 1). The VAN'T HOFF for the factor is purely empirical and does not account anomalous behavior During this period, Sv.
26, 144, 193 (1898). Tower: Z. physik. 61, 696 (1892). , 18, 17 (1895). McCoy: J. Am. Chem. , SO, 688 (1908). Chandler: J. Am. Chem. , 30, 694 (1908). Enklaar: Chem. Weekblad, 8, 824 (1911). Dhatta and Dhar: J. Chem. , 107, 824 (1915). Thorns and Sabalitschka: Th. , 6%, 567, 1378 (1919). , 60, 1227 (1917). THE REACTION OF is ACIDS, BASES, small compared with c for in this case Ki 9 practical purposes, and equation is (46) AND SALTS + 21 equals c for simplified to c [H+] all (47) This expression always permits an approximate calculation of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution of an acid salt.
This result is predicted by If equation (58). 575. H 2 \2 C* J -]}. (61) THE REACTION OF ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS 29 we assume that the concentrations of the different acids are equal, and when the dissociation constants differ greatly, it folIf lows that the components have but little reciprocal influence on FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 buffer capacities. their difference ures 5, point. This mutual influence grows as the between dissociation constants becomes smaller* 6 and Fig- this 7, as well as the following table, illustrate ACID-BASE INDICATORS 30 Instead of (61) it is more convenient to write 7T2 VAN SLYKE have a number of important applicaIn the tions.
Acid Base indicators by I.M. Kolthoff