Active sensors for local planning in mobile robotics by Penelope Probert Smith PDF

By Penelope Probert Smith

ISBN-10: 9810246811

ISBN-13: 9789810246815

ISBN-10: 9812811141

ISBN-13: 9789812811141

Describes contemporary paintings on energetic sensors for cellular robots. info of the actual operation are hidden. offers more often than not with lively variety sensors, which offer quick details for neighborhood making plans, describing extraction of two-dimensional beneficial properties equivalent to traces, corners, and cylinders.

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Defining a coordinate frame at this starting position, it uses a sensor to identify feature A and measure its position. The sensor is quite accurate, but there is some uncertainty in this measurement which transposes into the small grey area representing the uncertainty in the estimate of the feature's position. The robot drives forward in (2), during this time making an estimate of its motion using dead-reckoning (for instance counting the turns of its wheels). This type of motion estimation is notoriously inaccurate and Simultaneous Localisation and Map 17 Building causes motion uncertainties which grow without bound over time, and this is reflected in the large uncertainty region around the robot representing its estimate of its position.

This is because smooth reflections occur only when the variation in surface properties is comparable to the wavelength. For millimetre waves the long wavelength means that many surfaces appear completely smooth. These include most internal walls, some brick walls and some types of flooring. Reflections from many surfaces therefore occur only from power incident at a single point on the surface, from which the angles to the transmitter and receiver are the same (angles of incidence and of reflection are equal).

A smooth plane surface therefore appears curved. Other smooth shapes, such as cylinders and edges produce similar regions. A cylinder for example always returns the power directed towards the centre. Durrant Whyte and Leonard [Leonard and Durrant Whyte 92] coined the term "region of constant depth" or RCD for such regions. By analysing the RCD resulting from a surface or an edge, the orientation and position of the reflector can be determined. A model of the movement of the RCD with sensor movement was developed to distinguish primitive targets, in particular edges and planes.

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Active sensors for local planning in mobile robotics by Penelope Probert Smith

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