By Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb
This is often a vital ebook for researchers in electrochemistry; it covers parts of either basic and useful value, with studies of top of the range. the fabric is especially good provided and the alternative of subject matters displays a balanced editorial coverage that's welcomed.
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Extra resources for Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8
The calculations presented above have also consequences for the analysis of nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of ‘‘individual’’ grain boundaries in varistors. Varistors (variable resistors) are usually based on ZnO and exhibit a rather extreme current-voltage curve with very large grain boundary resistances at low voltages and a sharp drop of the resistance at a certain threshold voltage [120, 267]. The low-voltage data obtained across one grain boundary can be expected to be considerably inﬂuenced by neighboring grain boundaries.
435 for the 24-grain sample under investigation. In this sample, an entire grain shell around the two considered grains is taken into account. 4 might serve as a reasonable estimate of hR for highly resistive grain boundaries in samples with cubic-shaped grains and identical grain boundary properties. The changes of hR for less resistive grain boundaries (Fig. 15) are due to the widening of the current lines in order to obtain a homogeneous current density across the grain boundary . This widening yields a resistance increase which inﬂuences hR .
Parameters: d me ¼ 5 mm, Lg ¼ 25 mm, sgb ¼ 10À2 WÀ1 cmÀ1 , sbulk ¼ 10À6 WÀ1 cmÀ1 , wgb ¼ 25 nm. (b) Magniﬁcation of the spectrum calculated for a microelectrode on a grain boundary. Ohmic/reversible electrodes are assumed. tance Y~gb (¼ sgb wgb ) in a polycrystal with highly conductive grain boundaries. In the following, the basic principles of such investigations are discussed from numerical calculations on a 60-grain model sample (Fig. 17b). As shown in Fig. 18, both microelectrode locations (on a grain and on a grain boundary) lead to one semicircle if ohmic (reversible) electrodes are assumed.
Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8 by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb