By Michael Cooperson
Аль-Мамун (786—833) — багдадский халиф из династии Аббасидов.Сын Харуна аль-Рашида. Мать Мамуна была персидского происхождения. После смерти отца халифом стал его брат Аль-Амин, а Мамун стал губернатором Хорасана. В ходе вспыхнувшей гражданской войны, Мамун в 813 г. захватил Багдад и воцарился. Привлек к управлению государством ученых и основал в Багдаде Дом Мудрости (Бейт аль-хикма), созданную в подражание старинной персидской академии Джундишапура.В 827 г. по его повелению (и при его финансировании) были проведены градусные измерения дуги меридиана в долине Синджар, осуществлён перевод труда Птолемея на арабский язык («Альмагест»); в 829 г. в Багдаде основана астрономическая обсерватория.
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Indeed, his supporters are quoted as offering disingenuous protests when observers expressed surprise at the new title. “Perhaps he only means that he’s the prayer leader of mosque or tribe,” one partisan reportedly said, playing on another common meaning of the term imam (Tabari, 3, 779). ” Now there could be no question that he was offering an Islamic alternative to the central authority in Baghdad. Following the precedent of the original Abbasid revolutionaries, he was issuing a call to allegiance based on the idea that his movement aimed to restore just government under the leadership of a learned and pious kinsman of the Prophet.
There, surrounded by his partisans, he was examined by the notables, who concluded that their affairs would prosper under his leadership, and that his case against his enemy [al-Amin] was irrefutable (Arazi and El’ad, 2, 56). Normally, if one accepted the legitimacy of the Abbasid dynasty, one was bound to assert that the caliph and the imam were the same person. To justify overthrowing al-Amin, al-Ma’mun had to adopt the view that the imam might be someone other than the person generally recognized as caliph.
In hindsight, it seemed that the Sons who had settled in Baghdad had become accustomed to urban warfare and had lost the ability to fight in the field. The urbanized Sons may also have been intimidated by the sight of their wild and woolly cousins from the frontier. We sit smartly on horseback, and our shouting is enough to cause a miscarriage ... ( Jahiz, Rasa’il, 1, 19–20).
Al-Ma’mun by Michael Cooperson