By Simon Horobin
This authoritative survey bargains a concise description of heart English, the language of Chaucer, in the course of the interval from 1100 to 1500. heart English is mentioned relating to either prior and later phases within the historical past of English and in regard to different languages with which it got here into touch. The publication covers the important positive aspects of center English spelling, pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary and in addition introduces center English textual reviews.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Middle English
Y> was used interchangeably with , especially in environments where contemporary handwriting could be confusing, such as before or after
The Domesday Book of 1087, William the Conqueror’s most distinctive administrative innovation, was written in Latin. It is perhaps worth recalling at this point that such a multilingual society as post-Conquest England is not as curious at it might seem from a modern, Anglophone perspective. English is now an international language, spoken by some seven hundred million speakers worldwide as a ﬁrst language, and by many more as a second language. In the Middle Ages, however, English was a marginal language in Western European terms; in some ways, its position was roughly equivalent to that of present-day Dutch or Finnish in terms of numbers of speakers.
Allographs are realisations of graphemes; for instance, the realisation of may vary from font to font, thus << a a a a a >> and so on. There does not seem to be a generally accepted way of denoting allographs formally, perhaps because linguists (as opposed to paleographers or students of typography) have not categorised them very often. We will discuss allographs very rarely here, but when we do we will mark them by a double angle-bracket, thus <<…>>. 2 Reconstructing ME pronunciation In the previous section, we established a model for describing the relationship between speech and writing.
An Introduction to Middle English by Simon Horobin