By Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele
Content material: advent; half I. ANALYTICAL equipment: advent; tools of Visualisation; Vibrational spectroscopy; X-Ray tools; Nuclear thoughts; equipment of separation; Mass spectrometry; Electrochemical innovations; half II. fabrics: Ceramics and enamels; Glass; Stone; Gemstones/minerals; Obsidian; Pigments and dyes; Icons and work; Metals / corrosion; Biomaterials; Resins, bitumens, tar, coal; Ivory and bones; wooden; Textiles; modern fabrics; half III: QUESTIONS: id; Authentication; expertise of creation; Provenancing; relationship; Degradation and conservation; nutritional reconstruction; precis; Index
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In heritage research, fluorescence imaging has been applied mostly on paintings. Generally, pigments in paintings do not benefit from NUV-induced fluorescence photography, as most NUV is absorbed in the top layer. This, however, offers possibilities to look at the preservation state of a painting and its varnish layer, which often represents itself by a bluish to greenish fluorescence. 60 In these cases, one should also use direct NIR or SWIR imaging, visible-induced NIR fluorescence (Figure 13C), microscopic examination and X-ray examinations (see later).
1 D-SLRs Since the 1990s, much has changed in the photographic world due to the arrival of sophisticated digital still cameras (DSCs) and major advances in computer technology. 33 This section will focus on the use of small format digital single-lens reflex cameras (D-SLRs) as they allow switching lenses, which is certainly important for NUV photography. Notwithstanding this constraint, most principles tackled also hold for other DSC formats and most camera types such as compact point-and-shoot DSCs as well as hybrid/bridge/SLR-like camera models.
60 In these cases, one should also use direct NIR or SWIR imaging, visible-induced NIR fluorescence (Figure 13C), microscopic examination and X-ray examinations (see later). Besides canvas paintings, NUV-induced fluorescence can be used to look at pigments in wall paintings and water-colour paintings or the investigation of dyed textiles. Fluorescence by NUV can also reveal (dyed) varnish layers on gilded part of wooden sculpture or metal sculptures. Additionally, it is applied to verify traces of paint on sculptures or ceramics.
Analytical Archaeometry by Howell G M Edwards; Peter Vandenabeele