By James A. Walker
The articles during this edited quantity signify a number techniques to learning the function of verbal point in grammatical edition. matters addressed comprise: defining the variable context; operationalizing aspectual differences as elements conditioning linguistic edition; and the ideal variety of aspectual differences and degrees. except bringing to gentle numerous methodological and analytical matters, this quantity gathers jointly a distinct selection of unique study, in response to spoken- and written-language corpora, of an array of languages and linguistic types: African American. Read more...
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3 Distribution of periphrases by verb class and aspect State TP Iterative Durative Total N EG Iterative Durative Total N Activity Accomplishment Achievement % N % N % N % N 67 33 6 3 9 3 51 54 63 38 10 6 16 5 42 47 94 6 15 1 16 7 20 27 93 7 14 1 15 6 20 26 6 94 11 89 26 74 207 26 74 43 44 Ronald Beline Mendes durative TP with accomplishment and achievement verbs leads to two significant conclusions. First, if EG is becoming more frequent, through restriction of the uses of TP, achievement and accomplishment verbs should be the focus of any study of this change.
1978. Where does the sociolinguistic variable stop? Language in Society 7: 171–182. Labov, William. 1969. Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45: 715–762. Labov, William. 1982. Building on empirical foundations. In Winfred P. ), Perspectives on historical linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 11–92. Labov, William. 2008. Quantitative reasoning in linguistics. , R. McMillan Thompson & Sandra A. Thompson. 1982. The discourse basis of the perfect aspect: The Mandarin particle le.
Comparative sociolinguistics. ), The handbook of language variation and change. Oxford: Blackwell, 729–763. Torres Cacoullos, Rena. 2000. Grammaticization, synchronic variation, and language contact. A study of Spanish progressive -ndo constructions. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Torres Cacoullos, Rena. 2001. From lexical to grammatical to social meaning. Language in Society 30: 443–478. 1 Introduction The variation between the periphrastic constructions estar + gerúndio ‘be + Gerund’ (EG) and ter + particípio ‘have + Past Participle’ (TP) to express durative and iterative aspect in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raises interesting methodological issues.
Aspect in grammatical variation by James A. Walker