By Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound switch
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Extra resources for Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change
Lax vowels. The feature [±tense] is a cover term for a complex of phonetic features: extended duration and extreme articulatory position with an accompanying increase of articulatory effort. This is realized acoustically as an F1/F2 location near the outer envelope of the available acoustic space. 1, where both front and back regions show peripheral and non-peripheral tracks. i u e √ æ Location in this acoustic space is relevant to the direction of movement of vowels when change is in progress.
E. u:, respelled in the French style as ou, diphthongized with further nucleus-glide differentiation in the Great Vowel Shift, in house, mouth, proud, now, cow. This process did not affect vowels before labials or velars or after /y/, which remain in the current /uw/ class: you, your, youth, soup, group, etc. E. and French sources, spelled u, eau, ew, ui, which were generally realized with a palatal onglide as /juw/. The loss of the glide after coronals in North America created the opposition of /iw/ and /uw/ in dew vs.
3. Selection and recruitment of speakers Once a place was selected, the next step was to locate representative speakers. This was accomplished by searching local telephone directories for names marked by the most prominent national ancestry groups. In most of the pilot project area, the largest group of Euro-Americans is of German ancestry. English and Irish ancestry are also reported widely, Scandinavian ancestry is frequent in the northern region, and Polish ancestry is prevalent in the industrial centers.
Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change by Professor William Labov, Sharon Ash, Associate Professor of Linguistics Charles Boberg