By Barbara Krauthamer
From the past due eighteenth century throughout the finish of the Civil conflict, Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians got, bought, and owned Africans and African americans as slaves, a incontrovertible fact that continued after the tribes' removing from the Deep South to Indian Territory. The tribes formulated racial and gender ideologies that justified this tradition and marginalized loose black humans within the Indian countries good after the Civil conflict and slavery had ended. in the course of the finish of the 19th century, ongoing conflicts between Choctaw, Chickasaw, and U.S. lawmakers left untold numbers of former slaves and their descendants within the Indian countries with no citizenship in both the Indian international locations or the USA. during this groundbreaking learn, Barbara Krauthamer rewrites the background of southern slavery, emancipation, race, and citizenship to bare the centrality of local American slaveholders and the black humans they enslaved.
Krauthamer's exam of slavery and emancipation highlights the methods Indian women's gender roles replaced with the arriving of slavery and altered back after emancipation and divulges complicated dynamics of race that formed the lives of black humans and Indians either ahead of and after removal.
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Additional info for Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South
69 In the southern Indian nations, by contrast, the critical shift in the gendered and racialized meanings of agricultural work occurred with the addition of enslaved black men to a predominantly female (Indian) agricultural workforce. Indian men and women who had the means and the opportunity purchased enslaved black men and women to cultivate subsistence and commodity crops and directed both to work in the fields. ” By 1831 John Pitchlynn employed a white overseer and reported owning fifty slaves and having 200 acres under cultivation.
Thus a brief history of Indian removal is included in the first chapter to highlight Native people’s importance to southern history and to illustrate the points of intersection between the histories of slavery and Native dispossession. As Indians were forcibly relocated west of the Mississippi, slavery moved westward with them. introduction 13 Chapter 2 presents a detailed look at enslaved people’s religion and community relations. Early nineteenth-century federal “civilization” programs aimed at southern Indians entailed dispatching Christian missionaries to Indian communities.
In her 1859 will, Sophia Pitchlynn, Peter Pitchlynn’s mother, bequeathed a number of enslaved boys and girls to her own adult children, making no mention of the enslaved parents from 36 race, gender, and power in the deep south whom these children had been taken.
Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South by Barbara Krauthamer