By Jacques Chrétien, Daniel Dusser
This single-source reference provides present wisdom of the mechanisms of airway damage and service based on environmental components equivalent to chemical compounds, infectious brokers, toxins, mechanical irritants, and poisonous brokers.
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Extra info for Environmental impact on the airways: from injury to repair
Sullivan 72. Airway Secretion: Physiological Bases for the Control of Mucous Hypersecretion, edited by Tamotsu Takishima and Sanae Shimura 73. Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders, edited by D. Geraint James 74. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer, edited by Jonathan M. Samet 75. Pulmonary Embolism, edited by Mario Morpurgo Page e 76. Sports and Exercise Medicine, edited by Stephen C. Wood and Robert C. Roach 77. Endotoxin and the Lungs, edited by Kenneth L. Brigham 78. The Mesothelial Cell and Mesothelioma, edited by Marie-Claude Jaurand and Jean Bignon 79.
Epithelial abrasion is preceded by junctional defects (tight junctions) enabling fluids, macromolecules, and inflammatory cells to pass through the epithelium; conversely, it also facilitates deep penetration of toxic elements and damage to the hemi-desmosomes between the epithelium and the basement membrane (22). The resulting sporadic or total desquamation exposes a large surface of the basement membrane. This can be observed after the inhalation of toxic gases Page 12 and the action of bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae and viruses (Virus parainfluenzae and respiratory syncytial virus infection).
Eight cell types have been described. The distribution of these cell types varies according to the airway levels: in humans we recognize basal cells, either of classic type or neurosecretory type (Kultchitsky cells), superficial cells of serous or mucus secretion, and Clara cells, which are located mainly, but not only, in the terminal ducts. Other cells are nonsecretory, ciliary, intermediary and brush border. Epithelial attachments occur as nodes and are situated in the submucosa. Each node contains four distinct structures: groups of mucus cells or serous cells, each with a collecting duct, and a ciliary canal draining the whole of the Page 10 node to the bronchial lumen.
Environmental impact on the airways: from injury to repair by Jacques Chrétien, Daniel Dusser