Download e-book for iPad: Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety by J. David Clem (auth.), Cameron R. Hackney, Merle D. Pierson

By J. David Clem (auth.), Cameron R. Hackney, Merle D. Pierson (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461358434

ISBN-13: 9781461358435

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Temperature-induced sublethal stress also renders cells sensitive to other stressors. Mackey and Derrick (1986) presented evidence that cold-shock sensitized E. coli to very low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and, as a consequence, reduced the recovery ofviable cells on an organic-rich medium. Postgate (1967) cautioned against chilling of samples and cultures as a practice that promoted the death of stressed cells. Jackson (1974) observed loss of viability of Staphylococcus aureus and increased sensitivity to a selective medium at 5°C and noted that E.

The Food and Drug Administration conducted some bacteriological and chemical sampling of imported shellfish, but this was universally agreed as an inadequate control measure to protect public health. Historical Overview 27 The FDA now has MOUs with Australia, Chile, England, Iceland, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, and Canada for the sanitary control of fresh and fresh-frozen shellfish under the terms of the NSSP. Consequently, the NSSP requirements that apply to the production of shellfish in the United States for interstate shipment apply equally to those shellfish shipped under the terms of the MOUs.

Examples include breaching of exposure devices by autochthonous organisms owing to design or structural damage (Roper and Marshall 1979; Anderson, Rhodes, and Kator 1983) and physical penetration through membrane "pores" by bacterivorous nannoftagellates (Cynar, Estep, and Sieburth 1985) or other procaryotes (Li and Dickie 1985). Chambers may exhibit highly variable "bottle" effects because of nutrients contributed by fouling communities on chamber surfaces, blooms caused by exclusion of autochthonous organisms or predators, and attenuation of incident light.

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Environmental Indicators and Shellfish Safety by J. David Clem (auth.), Cameron R. Hackney, Merle D. Pierson (eds.)


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