By John Anderson, Jacques Durand
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Extra resources for Explorations in Dependency Phonology (Publications in language sciences)
This provides a useful channel for conveying additional meaning through hand gestures or facial gestures such as smiles, grimaces, and nods. Although these signals are different from the primary speech signal, they convey meaning. 31 32 Part I: Looking at Language through the Lens of Linguistics That is, you can smile at someone without ever saying a word, and that is communication. And if you smile while scolding someone for a mistake they made, it changes the meaning of the message by taking the sting out of the words and providing unspoken reassurance that you still like them.
But they can’t switch roles. One-way versus two-way communication Communication is a feature of all biological systems and can be defined as what happens when one organism (or part of an organism) stimulates a response in another organism (or part of an organism). This may be either a oneway process or a two-way process: ✓ One-way communication: For example, when a flower comes into bloom, its sight and smell informs the hummingbird that food is at hand. What makes it one-way communication is that the hummingbird doesn’t transmit information to the flower.
Don’t worry if you don’t have a clue what all those weird symbols in Figure 1-1 mean. Think of this chart as a chemistry table with all the elements listed, except that you’re looking at sound elements rather than chemical elements. Chapter 3 introduces you to the principles of the IPA classification — after you read that chapter, this table will make more sense to you. Chapter 1: Knowing a Language Versus Knowing What Language Is Figure 1-1: The International Phonetic Alphabet. 17 18 Part I: Looking at Language through the Lens of Linguistics Getting along with other players The language game has a lot of players, and wherever there are players, there’s a pecking order.
Explorations in Dependency Phonology (Publications in language sciences) by John Anderson, Jacques Durand