By Igor Dreer
This quantity bargains another, sign-oriented research of the distribution of the French Indicative and Subjunctive. It rejects either executive and features, attributed to either moods, and exhibits that the distribution of the Indicative and the Subjunctive is inspired by means of their invariant meanings. the quantity illustrates the shut interplay among the Indicative and the Subjunctive, as linguistic symptoms, and symptoms of alternative grammatical platforms, contextually linked to the invariant meanings of either moods. specified attention is given to using the Indicative and the Subjunctive in texts of other types and genres.
This quantity additionally bargains with the diachronic disfavoring of the Subjunctive and particularly of the Imperfect Subjunctive that happened from outdated French to modern French. it really is argued that this disfavoring used to be encouraged by way of the narrowing of the invariant that means of the modern French Subjunctive. All hypotheses are supported by way of contextualized examples and frequency counts.
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Extra info for Expressing the Same by the Different: The Subjunctive vs the Indicative in French
Since the Subjunctive appears mostly in the subordinate clause, it is argued that its use is governed by syntactical or lexical triggers of the main clause. However, the syntactic approach has two great flaws: a. The so-called triggers convey so many different ideas that it is impossible to define their common lexical characteristics, let alone to find one meaning that would be appropriate for all of them. b. , the Subjunctive of the unreal and the doubtful (cf. example (2) from the Preface) versus the Subjunctive of indisputable facts (cf.
As stated by Kirsner (ibid: 358), “no psycholinguistic evidence is put forward for such entities as” the X-bar theory, the case theory, the theta theory, the nodes, etc. “Such entities simply exist as descriptive devices, as tools of a particular formalization” (ibid). Therefore, they are intuitive, abstract and unclear to the same extent. They are “artificially created obstacles that make an explanation Chapter 1. Sentence-oriented approaches of the real data difficult, and often impossible” (Otheguy 2002: 382).
4. To postulate the invariant meaning of the Old French Subjunctive and to explain the diachronic disfavoring of the Subjunctive, by contrasting the Old French Subjunctive with the Contemporary French Subjunctive. 5. To postulate the semantic substance of the System of Relevance as well as the invariant meanings of the Subjunctive forms, the opposition of which constitutes the System of Relevance. 6. Based on these invariant meanings, to compare the use of the Subjunctive forms both in Old and in Contemporary French and to account for the favoring of the Present and the Perfect Subjunctives and the disfavoring of the Imperfect and the Pluperfect Subjunctives in Contemporary French.
Expressing the Same by the Different: The Subjunctive vs the Indicative in French by Igor Dreer