By T P Coultate, Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
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Additional resources for Food : the chemistry of its components
The structural relationships between L- and D-isomers, a- and panomers, and pyranose and hranose rings in both aldose and ketose sugars are by no means easily mastered. 5 illustrate the essential features of terminology in this area. Over the years chemists have synthesised innumerable derivatives of monosaccharides, but only a few occur naturally or have particular significance to food. Oxidation of the carbonyl group of aldose sugars leads to the formation of the ‘-onid series of sugar acids and, depending on the exact details of the conditions, various other products.
They are assumed to meander amongst the amylopectin molecules, orientated more or less radially. The granules of cereal starches contain approximately 1% of lipid material, mostly in the form of lysophopholipids (see Chapter 4). The hydrocarbon chains of the lipid molecules are believed to lie down the axis of helical amylose chains, forming a complex not dissimilar in structure from the iodine/amylose complex (see below). Undamaged starch granules are insoluble in cold water owing to the collective strength of the hydrogen bonds binding the chains together, but, as the temperature is raised to what is known as the initial gelatinisation Chapter 3 46 temperature, water begins to be imbibed.
Dominated our knowledge until a few decades ago. There is now much more interest in the behaviour of sugars in the apparently simple environment of an aqueous solution. Studies using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and predictions based on thermodynamic calculations have now revealed a great deal to us. Although the Haworth representation of the configuration of sugar rings always had obvious limitations - after all, van’t Hoff proposed the tetrahedral arrangement of carbon’s valencies in 1874 - it is only slowly being superseded in textbooks.
Food : the chemistry of its components by T P Coultate, Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)