By Rebekah Rast
This publication provides the main finished learn up to now of the place to begin of moment language acquisition. With its specialise in the language enter that freshmen obtain and what they do with this enter, the examine sheds gentle on questions nonetheless unanswered in moment language acquisition literature, akin to what wisdom is dropped at the purchase technique and the way newcomers use this data to procedure new linguistic details.
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Extra info for Foreign Language Input: Initial Processing
Secondly, she seeks to measure what we refer to as ‘input’: her approach consists of examining what learners do with feedback and correction, which, according to her, constitute two types of measurable stimuli. The speech production model and the bilingual production model Levelt’s (1989) questions concerning ‘information processing’ are closely related to those of authors working on ‘intake’, although Levelt opts for other terminology. g. g. Carroll, 1999), the ‘output’ of an item becomes ‘input’ for the following item.
The ZISA project (Zweitspracherwerb italienischer und spanischer Arbeiter) (cf. , 1988) identified a natural sequence for the acquisition of certain TL structures. Research on the acquisition of word order in German resulted in an implicational scale of structures which predicts developmental stages. During ‘stage X’ for example, canonical word order (SVO) is dominant in learners’ productions; during ‘stage X' 1’, adverbs are found in sentence initial position, and so forth. We can Input and Intake Revisited 27 therefore assume that the environment provokes a sequence of modifications in the learners’ language processing that can gradually lead to the acquisition of capacities in advanced learners.
Word length; word stress; phonemic distance between the L1 and the TL; lexical transparency of a word with regard to the L1 and other L2s; word position (in a sentence or utterance); word frequency (in the input); and quantity of exposure (in hours). We propose that the saliency of lexical items will need to be defined from the perspective of the learner (cf. Kellerman, 1983 on ‘psychotypology’). The fact that a TL word is ‘transparent’ for us, researchers and observers, in no way implies that it is for the learner.
Foreign Language Input: Initial Processing by Rebekah Rast