By Diane Glancy
At the top of the Southern Plains Indian wars in 1875, the conflict division shipped seventy-two Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Comanche, and Caddo prisoners from fortress Sill, Oklahoma, to castle Marion in St. Augustine, Florida. those such a lot resistant local humans, known as “trouble causers,” arrived to curious, boisterous crowds desirous to see the Indian warriors they knew basically from mind's eye. Fort Marion Prisoners and the Trauma of local Education is an evocative paintings of inventive nonfiction, weaving jointly heritage, oral traditions, and private adventure to inform the tale of those Indian prisoners.
Resurrecting the voices and reports of the prisoners who underwent a painful routine of assimilation, Diane Glancy’s paintings is an element background, half documentation of non-public bills, and a look for ingenious openings into the lives of the prisoners who left few in their personal files except carvings of their cellblocks and the well-known ledger books. They discovered English, arithmetic, geography, civics, and penmanship with the information that buying an analogous schooling as these within the U.S. government will be their top instrument for petitioning for freedom. Glancy unearths tales of survival and an intimate figuring out of the fortress Marion prisoners’ predicament.
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Extra info for Fort Marion Prisoners and the Trauma of Native Education
He could hear the buffalo standing with him—waiting for the return of the Indians. When the plaster was on Ta-a-way-te’s face, he had a vision. He was shut in the box-that-walks again. It turned upside down. There were others with him—he was suffocating. Ta-a-way-te flailed, but they held his arms until he stopped. Mills and Pratt assured him it wouldn’t last long. In Ta-a-way-te’s vision, he was falling. There were others with their arms uplifted to catch him. They looked as if they had been made with drawing sticks on a ledger book.
Bear’s Heart—I dreamed they tied a pencil to my hand. I dreamed they tied the ocean to our beds. Drawing was now their war. The past brought regret and sadness because it was far away. They remembered the cries of their families as they left. How could they draw what they heard? Tourists came to the fort to look at the prisoners. They stared when the Indians walked in town with Captain Pratt. The prisoners polished sea beans. They sold their drawings to the tourists. Black Horse had his wife, Pe-ah-in, and his child, Ah-kes, because they had jumped into the wagon as it left Fort Sill.
November 27, 1868—Colonel George Custer attacked an Indian village along the Washita River in Indian Territory. Previous to that, the Indians had signed the 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty, which required the southern Cheyenne and Arapaho to move from Kansas and Colorado south into Indian Territory. In the summer of 1868 war parties from the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, Brule, Oglala Lakota, and Pawnee attacked settlers in western Kansas and southeastern Colorado. After that, it was a further flurry of treaties, skirmishes, massacres.
Fort Marion Prisoners and the Trauma of Native Education by Diane Glancy