By Frank Brescia (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Chemistry: a Modern Introduction
What is the new pressure in the flask, assuming negligible change in temperature? 18. B o y l e ' s L a w . 0 lb/in 2. Barometric pressure is 15 lb/in 2. It is then squeezed to half its volume. What is the new gage pressure? See discussion of gage pressure in Appendix I (page 780). A n s w e r . 25 lb/in 2. 19. D a l t o n ' s L a w . 100 ml of hydrogen gas is collected over water at 283°Κ and 800 torr. 2 torr. The hydrogen is separated from the water and dried at constant temperature, (a) What is the new volume of the dry hydrogen at standard conditions?
7. For hydrogen, the molecular attractive forces are low and do not produce a predominant PV effect; instead, the volume added by the molecules yields PV values exceeding the ideal values at all pressures shown on the graph. For nitrogen, the interattractive forces are great enough to yield negative PV deviations up to about 150 atmospheres. Intermolecular attractions in carbon dioxide, even at 40°C, are obviously much more important than those in nitrogen at 0°C. For both nitrogen and carbon dioxide a pressure exists (150 atmospheres and 600 atmospheres, respectively) at which the two effects cancel each other and the PV product is ideal.
At high temperatures, the molecules have greater kinetic energy and their ten dencies to aggregate lessen. Thus, high temperatures and low pressures both favor ideal gas behavior. At one atmosphere, deviations from ideality are of the order of 1% for most gases. Problems 1. Properties of gases. Offer an explanation for the fact that all gases are transparent. 2. K e l v i n s c a l e . 000°C, 5 X 10 3°C. 1°K. 3. C h a r l e s ' a n d G a y - L u s s a c ' s L a w . 2 can actually be constructed from a ground-glass syringe whose plunger is spinning at high speed.
Fundamentals of Chemistry: a Modern Introduction by Frank Brescia (Auth.)