By Jose Viegas
Charging for using delivery infrastructure has very varied traditions within the numerous modes, reflecting different nature in their infrastructure (nodal vs. linear), but in addition diverse old traditions of open entry, method integration, etc.
Since the early 90's numerous ecu fee projects took in this factor, taking a look more often than not on the street area, the place many nations had no (direct) entry fees. Heavy items autos have been systematically pointed out because the fundamental pursuits for a renewed method of this problem.
What appeared a simple trap has proved to be a lot tougher, with a number of the nations adopting virtually solely nationwide methods, and the ecu associations not able to force the process.
This e-book appears on the demanding situations posed through this goal, recognising that there are a number of goals for software of street tolls and costs, and discussing some of the attainable ideas, within the technical, institutional and criminal dimensions. The multiplicity of nationwide events in Europe is installed point of view, the affects of assorted charging schemes on nearby improvement and at the atmosphere are envisioned, and the new coverage approach is analysed, permitting an international view of the rest problems and to make thoughts concerning the subsequent steps within the process.
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Extra info for Interurban Road Charging for Trucks in Europe, Volume 11 (Research in Transportation Economics)
Other parameters, such as the time of day or class of road etc. pt, 2003). A current example of a DAREA pricing solution is road pricing for HGVs for the use of all roads in Switzerland. DAREA pricing is a classical strategy for countries (or geographical areas) with a high density of road infrastructure. Motorway network charging of HGVs in these countries would presumably lead to a high rate of detour traffic onto secondary and urban roads, inevitably causing higher rather than lower transport related environmental and accident costs.
1. By Road Side Infrastructure Also Non-equipped users can be automatic registered from road side equipment and within this process the charging is initiated. The most common technology for this kind of non-stop charging is Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) with License Plate Reading. Table 10. Technical Options for Non-Equipped Users. Technical and Procedural Design Elements 37 The registered use of the scheme is charged to an existing account that the user must have previously established with the operator.
Price variation can based on vehicle types, vehicle characteristics, sections of infrastructure, geographical areas and time of day. Existing HGV charging schemes distinguish between vehicles with different numbers and configurations of axles, by vehicle weight, by the use of trailers and/or by emission classes when determining vehicle charges. A price variation that relates directly to the vehicle type or class is imperative if charging for infrastructure damage and environmental cost is to be equitable.
Interurban Road Charging for Trucks in Europe, Volume 11 (Research in Transportation Economics) by Jose Viegas