By Edward Stabler
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Minimally involves a distinction between past and nonpast time reference, then that language is tensed. b. In all other cases, a language is nontensed. Hu et al. (2001: 1119) also observe, “Stassen (1997) further argues that in a tensed language, the obligatory tense marking must be realized not by means of auxiliaries or particles, but by means of bound morphology on verbs, and tensed languages must meet the PAST CONDITION, which stipulates that a tensed language should have a verbal form exclusively referring to past time”.
Explaining Language Change: An Evolutionary Approach. Edinburgh: Longman. ———. 2006. “Evolutionary models and functional-typological theories of language change”. In Ans van Kemenade and Bettelou Los, eds. The Handbook of the History of English. Oxford: Blackwell, 68–91. DeGraff, Michel. 2001. “On the origins of creoles: A Cartesian critique of Neo-Darwinian linguistics”. Linguistic Typology 5: 213–30. ———. 2003. “Against Creole exceptionalism. Discussion note”. Language 79: 391–410. ———. 2005.
C. He wondered whether [___ to be aware]. In (3), tell is a verb which selects a complement that reports the giving of an instruction; consider is a verb which selects a complement that expresses a statement-like proposition; and wonder whether together select a clause that expresses a reported question. In none of the instances in (3) is the semantics of the Aspects of the morphosyntactic typology of Hong Kong English complement encoded in their syntax. It is true that embedded non-finite questions are slightly more difficult to show because whether does not select for non-finite clauses with overt subjects.
Introduction to Linguistics by Edward Stabler