Download e-book for iPad: Islam (Religions of the World) by Jamal J. Elias

By Jamal J. Elias

ISBN-10: 0415211654

ISBN-13: 9780415211659

ISBN-10: 0415213444

ISBN-13: 9780415213448

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Seeing the spider web, the Meccans thought that no one had been inside in a while and turned away After the search party had returned empty-handed, Muhammad and Abu Bakr made their way to Yathrib, and Ali followed as soon as he had settled all of Muhammad’s financial and social obligations in Mecca. The emigration of Muhammad and the Muslims from Mecca to Yathrib, which occurred in 622, marks the most important date in Islamic history. It is called the Hijra, or “Great Emigration”: the Muslims who emigrated are referred to as Muhajirs and those who helped them as Ansar.

The various Sufi forms of meditation are called dhikr (or zikr). Dhikr literally means “repetition” “remembrance” “utterance,“ or “mentioning”: in the Qur’an it appears in the context of urging Muslims to remember their Lord frequently. At its most basic level, Sufi dhikr consists of repeating one of God’s names over and over. In Islam, God is believed to have many names that describe some aspect of his nature. ” The name of God used most frequently in dhikr exercises is “Allah” (which Sufis see as the most excellent name), although others, such as Rahim (Merciful) or Wahid (Unique) are also used.

Similarly, the Ashcariya regard the Qur’an as the eternal speech of God, while the Muctazila believe that it might be replaced at some future date, if God so willed. Unlike the Muctazila, the Ashcariya implicitly accepted the vision of God that is promised in the afterlife. They also believed that the omnipotent God had willed both good and evil in the world. At the same time, the Ashcariya felt that humans were accountable for their actions. From this they deduced that sinners could remain Muslim, yet still be punished in Hell for their crimes.

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Islam (Religions of the World) by Jamal J. Elias


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