By John H. Byrne
V. 1. studying concept and behavior / quantity editor, Randolf Menzel -- v. 2. Cognitive psychology of reminiscence / Henry L. Roediger III -- v. three. reminiscence structures / quantity editor, Howard Eichenbaum -- v. four. Molecular mechanisms of reminiscence / quantity editor, J. David Sweatt.
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Extra resources for Learning and Memory. A Comprehensive Reference
One can point to a wide variety of examples of episodic memory, ranging from remembering what a friend wore at a party the night before to individual words studied in a list moments ago. In most contexts, episodic memory is synonymous with explicit memory, although the former term is usually used to represent a memory system and the latter term to designate types of tests that are used. Many tests have been designed to measure certain aspects of episodic memory in the lab, including free recall (recall of a set of material in any order), serial recall (recall of events in order), cued recall (recall of events given specific cues), recognition judgments (recognizing studied material intermixed with nonstudied material), source judgments (recognizing the source of presented material, such as whether it was presented auditorily or visually).
We consider the issue of explicit and implicit memory, conscious and unconscious forms of memory, voluntary and involuntary retention, intentional and incidental learning and retrieval, declarative and procedural memory, and retrospective and prospective memory. 1 Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit memory refers to cases of conscious recollection. When we remember our trip to Paris or A Typology of Memory Terms 13 recognize that some words occurred in a recent list, these are instances of explicit memory.
All tests that fall into these categories assess retrospective memory: memory for the past or effects of past experience on current behavior. In the past 2 decades, researchers have examined memory for intentions to be performed in the future, or prospective memory. Strictly speaking, prospective memory is retrospective in nature: it involves remembering a past intention. A prospective memory task differs from a retrospective memory tasks in that there is usually no explicit cue to elicit recall of the intention.
Learning and Memory. A Comprehensive Reference by John H. Byrne