By Marx, Karl; Bottomore, Thomas Burton; Fromm, Erich
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22 For Marx, "Communism is the positive abolition of private property,23 of human self-alienation, and thus the real appropriation of human nature through and for man. , really human being, a complete and conscious return which assimilates all the wealth of previous development. Communism as a fully developed naturalism is humanism and as a fully developed humanism is naturalism. It is the definitive resolution of the antagonism between man and nature, and between man and man. It is the true solution of the 28 THE NATURE OF MAN conflict between existence and essence, between objectification and selfaffirmation, between freedom and necessity, between individual and species.
19 It is not only that the world of things becomes the ruler of man, but also that the social and political circumstances which he creates become his masters. "20 The alienated man, who believes that he has become the master of nature, has become the slave of things and of circumstances, the powerless appendage of a world which is at the same time the frozen expression of his own powers. 42 ALIENATION For Marx, alienation in the process of work, from the product of work and from circumstances, is inseparably connected with alienation from oneself, from one's fellow man and from nature.
Marx's position was quite clearly on the side of the conquest of poverty, and equally against consumption as a supreme end. Independence and freedom, for Marx, are based on the act of self-creation. "A being does not regard himself as independent unless he is his own master, and he is only his own master when he owes his existence to himself. A man who lives by the favor of another considers himself a dependent being. But I live completely by another person's favor when I owe to him not only the continuance of my life but also its creation; when he is its source.
Marx's concept of man by Marx, Karl; Bottomore, Thomas Burton; Fromm, Erich