By Frances Stewart (auth.)
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Extra info for North-South and South-South: Essays on International Economics
CONCLUSIONS This essay has analysed reasons for the failure of proposals for changes in North-South relations over the past few decades. The main conclusion from the analysis is that the usual proposals for reform identify mutual interest for reform, but the mutual interests identified are at a very general level, and do not coincide with the interests of particular groups who effectively determine national action. Unless particular interests are identified and incorporated in analysis and proposals, reforms are unlikely to be realised.
Seller power This is less effective, especially in recession, because of the existence of stocks and of substitutes and the difficulty in controlling all sources of supply. OPEC's success caused overconcentration on this approach, given its limitations. 3. Contracts Large contracts offer potential power because they are related to very specific interests. Thus while any one contract is North-South Negotiations 29 likely to be very small in relation to the total income of Northern economies, it may be important for particular companies, which in turn may influence Northern government policy.
The institution of economic and social rights performed a similar function, using the language of rights, involving the strongest moral imperative. Both the BN and the human rights approaches can be seen as attempts to develop a moral and political agenda which would ensure fulfilment of BN and not leave the extent of fulfilment to contingent forces. Needs are not the same as rights. Making BN into human rights adds two elements to the BN approach. It increases the moral weight of and political commitment to their fulfilment, and it gives BN fulfilment some international legal status, the extent and nature of which depends on the nature of the supervisory and enforcement mechanisms associated with the rights.
North-South and South-South: Essays on International Economics by Frances Stewart (auth.)