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By Royal College of Physicians of London. Tobacco Advisory Group.; Royal College of Physicians of London

ISBN-10: 1860163769

ISBN-13: 9781860163760

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The evidence is therefore inconsistent, but the absence of a clear effect on all abnormalities does not exclude significant effects on individual or subgroups of abnormality. 2 Heart defects Congenital heart defects represent one of the most common and serious birth anomalies in developing countries. 35 Surviving infants often require several operations during their lifetime. 3 shows the results of selected studies of maternal smoking and cardiovascular disease of infants at birth. The largest of these studies indicated a 15% increase in the risk of having a baby with a heart defect,30 but this is not apparent in all the other large studies.

Tob Control 2009 Aug;18(4):256–61. 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 © Royal College of Physicians 2010. All rights reserved. 1 Introduction As outlined in Chapter 1, smoke-free legislation has now resulted in substantial improvements in indoor air quality and reductions in exposure to passive smoke in most workplaces and enclosed public places in the UK. However, the legislation does not extend to homes and other private places where the majority of exposure occurs. 2 Young children are also at a higher risk of passive smoke exposure compared with adults.

Willers S, Skarping G, Dalene M, Skerfving S. Urinary cotinine in children and adults during and after semiexperimental exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Arch Environ Health 1995;50(2):130–8. Jarvis MJ, Goddard E, Higgins V et al. Children’s exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys. BMJ 2000 Aug 5;321(7257): 343–5. Health Survey for England homepage 2009. htm Benowitz NL. Cotinine as a biomarker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

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Passive smoking and children by Royal College of Physicians of London. Tobacco Advisory Group.; Royal College of Physicians of London

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