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14 This 'specifier' position itself may well be eliminable. 5 and Chomsky's separate contribution in this volume. This possibility does not bear on the discussion in this section. Here, 'Comp' stands for the 'complementizer', sometimes overt, as in 'it seems that John wrote something'. POS Stands: Why Recent Challenges Fail 29 interpretation (as an argument of 'wrote'), while the structurally higher occurrence of what is in the position where it is 'pronounced' (and, furthermore, interpreted as an operator ranging over the construction, so that the interpretation is roughly 'for which thing x, you wrote the thing x').

1 Clark and Eyraud (Clark and Eyraud 2007; Clark, Eyraud, and Habrard 2008; Clark 2010); hereafter, CE We begin by considering a string-based approach that was motivated by considering some of Zellig Harris's proposals on 'discovery procedures' for grammars. CE advance an inference algorithm for grammars that, given positive examples such as (153) and (isb) below, generalizes to a much larger derivable set of sentences that includes examples such as (isc), while correctly excluding ungrammatical examples such as (isd).

Anything beyond the simplest case of Merge(X,Y) = {X,Y} requires additional stipulations and more complex computations, and therefore is to be rejected unless it receives adequate empirical support. If X is a lexical item and Y any syntactic object (SO), then the output of Merge is the set {X, SO} with SO traditionally called the complement of X. As a simple example, 'see the man, with part-of-speech labels v, det, n, traditionally written as a Verb Phrase consisting of the verb 'see' and its Noun Phrase complement 'the man, can for expository convenience be represented as {v, {det, n}}.

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Structures for Semantics by Fred Landman

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